IL 412 \
Moskvich 412 - Soviet small-class passenger car, produced in Moscow at the plant MZMA, later renamed AZLK, from 1967 to 1976, and at the automobile plant in Izhevsk from 1967 to 1997. This car appeared as a result of modernization Moskvich 408 and retained all its advantages: durability, strength, ease of maintenance. At first, the Moskvich 412 was in fact the “luxury” version of the Moskvich 408, but later (since 1970) it became the base model of the plant. He was larger than his predecessor and could easily accommodate five passengers. Successful design (all-metal "sedan" carrying type) and reliable components allowed to create successful racing versions of this car, which have repeatedly won in Soviet and foreign competitions. Despite a number of archaic features, such as a spring rear suspension or drum brakes, for its time the Moskvich 412 was quite a modern car.
For the first time on the mass domestic car they found use: overhead valve engine, fully synchronized gear on forward gears, dual-circuit brake system with vacuum booster, full-flow oil filter, air filter with quick-change dry element - components without which it is impossible to imagine a modern car, but in the second half of the sixties, they only began to appear on cars of this class.
The main novelty was the engine developed by Igor Ivanovich Okunev. The power unit had an original, but, as practice has shown, absolutely reliable design. Its feature is a cylinder block tilted to the right in the direction of travel (the so-called slant-block). This decision allowed to make the engine more compact, to lower the center of gravity of the car. Under the cast aluminum head cover with a beautiful “Moskvich-412” inscription, there was a very modern design for 1967: an overhead camshaft driven by a Morse chain with an tensioner star, and a valve actuator located on both sides of the camshaft, rocker arms. Unusual was the hemispherical shape of the combustion chamber, which provided the best conditions for combustion of the working mixture, and therefore improved engine efficiency. The cylinder block was made of aluminum with steel interchangeable sleeves, which made it possible to overhaul the engine, rather than changing it altogether.
The motor had a working volume of 1478 cubic meters. cm and developed power 75 hp at 5800 rpm The maximum speed is 140 km / h. Acceleration from zero to 100 km / h in 18 seconds. Fuel consumption was 10 liters per 100 km. Powerful, modern and very reliable engine was the main trump card of the “412th” both in the domestic and export markets. The car, by the way, was widely offered on the foreign market. In the early years of production, most of the Moskvich 412 was exported.
In 1969-71 Moskvich 412 was thoroughly upgraded. He received a new body, which fully met the requirements of passive safety of those years. The car began to be regularly equipped with seat belts (the end of 1969), a safety steering column and a soft lining of the instrument panel and the front pillars. Moskvich 412 was the first Soviet car, on which security issues were given so much attention. The car received a salon with separate front seats (from January 1968) and a gear lever in the floor (from November 1968) - according to the latest European fashion. The appearance of the car was significantly modified. Thanks to stylish new rectangular headlights (produced in the GDR) and horizontal rear lights, the car, retaining the main body panels, began to look much more modern. In 1974, fangs appeared on the bumpers, which are also an element of passive safety - they prevented the machine from “diving” under the obstacle. Throughout the release, other, less noticeable changes and improvements were made to the design of the car.
Due to the high demand in 1967, a new automobile plant was built in Izhevsk, which started the production of Moskvich 412 according to AZLK technical documentation. It was believed that this was due to the fact that most of the products of AZLK itself were exported, so another plant was needed to meet the demand inside the country. Izhevsk "Muscovites" developed and modernized as a whole, regardless of Moscow. Model 412 was produced in Izhevsk until 1997, while at the Moscow factory the car was discontinued in 1976.