Gaz zim

Post-war business class. ZIM GAZ-12

The GAZ 12 “ZIM” model is a full-size passenger car that was first introduced by the Russian (then Soviet) GAZ automobile company (Gorky Automobile Plant), as well as the ZIM (Molotov Plant) in 1950. The development was started in 1948 and was carried out in a short time (the development allowed for 29 months). The team that worked on the creation of the car included: designer Andrei Alexandrovich Lipgart, as well as responsible design artist Lev Yeremeyev, who would then become the author of GAZ M-21 and GAZ 21. In October 1950, the first industrial batch of GAZ-12 was released . The car was produced in a 4-door sedan, and in the version of an ambulance with a body called "embyulsant hatchback."

The body was made bearing, that is, did not have a separate frame, which can be structurally separated from the body. Power elements similar to the frame, were included in the structure of the body and fastened by welding, which in general gives some advantage in the mass of the structure, although in this case this moment looks quite controversial.

Under the hood, the GAZ 12 was located a 6-cylinder Dodge D5 type lower-valve engine (the production license under the GAZ-11 brand was purchased before the Great Patriotic War) with a volume of 3.5 liters and a capacity of 90 hp. at 3800 rpm. As for the transmission, a three-stage manual gearbox with synchronizers in the second and third gears and a hydraulic clutch was installed - a transmission unit located between the engine and the clutch, which was a crankcase filled with special oil, in which two rotor in the form of a half toroid, divided by blades into 48 compartments (pump rotor, which played the role of a flywheel) and 44 compartments (a turbine rotor, attached to it a lightweight flywheel and the usual active clutch). Hydrocoupler gave the car a lot of advantages. The car could start with any transmission of the three available, the factory instruction was recommended to get under way from the second gear, and the first to use only in difficult road conditions and on the climbs.

By the end of its release in 1959 (base sedan), ZiM had finally become obsolete both technically and externally. The aggregate part, however, could be considered obsolete in the early 1950s, as the lower valve engine and manual gearbox (on a machine of this class) were rapidly replaced by upper valve engines and automatic gearboxes.

The production of the GAZ 12 ZiM sedan was completed in 1959, and the sanitary version with an additional tailgate was produced before 1960, after which it was also discontinued.

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