Grand test: GAZ-13 Seagull
The “Seagull” was non-standard both in design and in the number of technical innovations. Most of the design solutions were applied for the first time on the cars of the domestic auto industry.
At the heart of the design of the machine was an X-shaped frame without side spars, to which a body was attached to it through 16 rubber pads. GAZ-13 was produced with three body types: 4-door sedan, 5-door station wagon (“Ambulance”) and 4-door phaeton GAZ-13B, the soft top of which was driven by an electro-hydraulic system from the driver’s seat. The dimensions of the body were 5600/2000/1620 mm with a base of 3250 mm and a track 1540/1530 mm, curb weight - 2100 kg. On the grille was attached image of a seagull.
Most 4-door bodies had 3 rows of seats without an inner partition; The GAZ-13A series, produced in small editions, had such a partition between driver and passenger compartments. In the comfortable and spacious cabin of the car with the convenience of accommodating 7 people. The equipment for those years was quite solid: electric windows, an efficient heating system, a 5-band receiver with automatic tuning and additional speakers for the rear passengers, push-button antenna lift control, electric lighter, panoramic windshield washers, fog lights, leather interior and tinted windows.
The car was equipped with a two-row overhead valve 5,526-liter carburetor engine with a V-shaped arrangement of 8 cylinders with a power of 195 hp. at 4200 rpm The maximum speed of the car reached 160 km / h, acceleration to 100 km / h took 20 s, and the average consumption of gasoline was 21 liters per 100 km. It is worth saying that subsequently these engines were installed on armored personnel carriers in a slightly modified form.
The engine was aggregated with a hydromechanical gearbox, gear shifting was carried out by pressing buttons. In addition, GAZ-13 was equipped with power steering and a vacuum brake booster, which was not the case with other domestic cars.
The drive of the model was “classic” rear, although attempts were made to develop a version with self-locking differentials. The running gear had an independent front spring suspension and longitudinal semi-elliptical springs at the rear. Tire size - 8.20 / 15 inches. Ground clearance - 180 mm.
The next generation of Chaika, the GAZ-14, was manually made in a special workshop of the Gorky Automobile Plant. The car was produced from October 14, 1977 to 1989, and in the last, the 89th, only one was released. In total, about 2,000 such cars were built.
The layout of the GAZ-14 was made according to the classical scheme: the front engine layout, rear-wheel drive, swap body, located on the ridge frame; all as in the previous model. However, the base was lengthened by 200 mm, which had a positive effect on increasing the legroom for rear passengers. Body height lowered by 95 mm; the center of gravity also decreased, and also aerodynamic drag decreased, which favorably affected the improvement of stability when driving at high speeds. Thus, the dimensions of the "Seagull" began to be 6115/2020/1580 mm, and the curb weight - 2605 kg.
GAZ-14 was the first model of the GAZ plant, richly equipped with various electric drives and electronics. Electric windows, individual automatic ventilation and heating systems, electromechanical drive of air intakes, electronic ignition and much more.
Front separate seats have adjustments in three planes, and back - a soft armrest. The heating system consists of two heaters, there is also an air conditioner. The noise level, thanks to a special noise insulation system, is very low and amounts to no more than 73 dB. Also, a special, “zero-threshold” door design was used - thanks to it, the doorway was increased and the convenience of landing in the car increased.
The GAZ-14 was equipped with a modernized V-shaped eight-cylinder 5.5-liter engine (220 hp / 4200 rpm, 451 Nm / 2750 rpm), which allowed to reach speeds of up to 175 km / h. Acceleration to 100 km / h occurred in 14 seconds, and the average gas mileage was 19 liters.
The car was completed with a new planetary hydromechanical gearbox with three gears to move forward and one - back.
When designing the model, much attention was paid to operational safety. Brakes front ventilated disc, rear drum. To increase reliability, the hydraulic brake drive had two independent circuits, each of which acted on the brakes of both front wheels and one rear.
Among the passive safety features are: door locking from the driver’s seat, stiffness belts in the door panels, three-point safety belts, headlight jet cleaning, front and rear fog lights.
The advanced soft suspension provided smooth movement on roads with any surface.
By order of the Ministry of Defense, the GAZ-14-05 “Chaika” batch with an open body in an amount of about 10 pieces was also manufactured for use in parades.
The executive car "Chaika" was distinguished by a high technical level and comfort. In terms of the number of technical innovations, this model surpassed all previous domestic machines and was intended for official use in higher government institutions. In 1958, at the international exhibition in Brussels, GAZ-13 was awarded the Grand Prix. A total of 3179 Chaika cars were assembled in various modifications.